The Southeastern European copper Age was began by the Proto-Saharans. These Mande, Proto-Magyar(Hungarian) and Dravidian speaking people established mining villages and cattle herding communities in Eastern Europe and the Central Asian steppes (Winters 1986). They are associated with the Vinca Tordos and Tripolye cultures.

These miners controlled the rich gold areas of Transyvania and the tin, from the Erz Mountains of Czechoslovakia. Most of these sites for early metal mining were established near the Danube river in the Carpathian Basin. A common origin for the miners of the Aegean and the Tripolye culture would explain the analogy between the writing systems of the Danube Valley, Troy, Crete and the ancient Sahara.

There is disagreement over where the Europeans originated and when they spread across Europe. Dr. M. Gimbutas maintains that Europeans had their origin in the Pontic steppe country on the north coast of the Black Sea and began to expand into Europe as Kurgan nomads after 4000 B.C. In 1987, Dr. C. Renfrew hypothesized that the Indo-Europeans lived in eastern Anatolia and spread into Europe around 7000 years ago with the spread of agriculture. Both of these views have little support based upon the ancestral culture terms used by the Proto-Indo-European which are predominately of non Indo-European (I-E) origin. After a comparison of the linguistic, agricultural and genetic evidence researchers have found little support for both of these theories. Sokal et al, noted that:

"If the IEs originated in situ by local differentiation only, there should be no significant partial correlation, since geography should fully explain the observed genetic and linguistic distances. This was not the case.

If the genetics-language correlation were entirely due to the spread of populations accompanying the origin of agriculture, then the origin-of-agriculture model should suffice, or at least there should be some effect due to origin of agriculture. But we saw that origin-of-agriculture distances (OOA) cannot reduce the partial correlations remaining after geography has been held constant."

The historical and archaeological evidence supports the genetic evidence supporting the absence of an Indo-European origin in the Anatolian region. Non-Indo-European speakers inhabited the north and east of Anatolia. It appears that Indo-Europeans did not enter Anatolia until sometime between 2000 -1800 B.C. At this time we note the appearrance of Indo-European (Hittite) names in the literary records of the Old Kingdom of Hatti. And at least as late as 1900 B.C. Anatolia was basically still Hattian.




The Carpathian Basin was a center for cattle rearing and copper mining during the middle Neolithic. Dr. Vamos-Toth Bator has found thousands of toponyms that connect the Carpathian basin and Africa. He calls the ancient Kushite culture that connected all of these colonist from the Fertile African Crescent: Tamana.

Dr. Vamos-Toth Bator has opened up the world to new knowledge about the toponyms and cultural traits that connected the ancient world civilizations. He has been able to use linguistic, anthropological and historical-toponymic evidence to vividly make us aware of Tamana culture.

The Hungarian people speak the Magyar language. Many researchers have assumed that the Magyar people only recently arrived in the Carpathian Basin from Asia. This is not necessarily true for all the Magyar.

The Magyar trace their origins back to ancient Nubia. The Arvisurak , an ancient book of the Magyar said that the name Uz was applied to the ancient Magyar, the largest tribe of the Black Huns (Winters 1986).

Tibor Barath, has given a considerable amount of data which indicates that the Kushites from Nubia, played an important role in the formation of the Magyar. As a result we find that the Magyar/Hungarian language is closely related to African and Dravidian languages.

Table: 1 Cognate Terms


Man child woman person


Dravidian al mog manuci, asa uk

Sumerian tin,mu, lu manus uku

Manding tye, molo musa musu moko

Magyar muki, el 'person' mag anyuci,asszony muki


The Proto-Magyar were one of the many ethnic groups which formerly lived in the Fertile African Crescent. They offered prayers to *kan, e.g., Magyar kan, konyorog, Manding kani, and Dravidian ka-n. They also worshipped the god Amon, who they called Anya (Winters, 1986).

The name Maa is found in many Proto-Saharan ethnonyms. For example the Manding called themselves Ma-nde (the children of Ma), the Sumerians called themselves Mah-Gar-ri (exalted God's children), and the Magyar of ancient times referred to themselves as Muh-ger-ri , or Ma-ka-r (exalted children) (Winters,1986).

According to David MacRitchies the most ancient Uralic speakers were called czernii ugris or 'Black Ugris'. The Ugris were also called Hunni. The name Ugrian, is the origin for the word Hungarian. The Hungarians were also called Sabatocospali ,"the Blacks".

The Carpathian blacks arrived in the area in the 4th millennium B.C. The Tripolye culture dates from 3800 to 2100 B.C. The Tripolye culture was established in the Ukraine, Moldavia and Romania along the Siret River in the Ukraine.

The Tripolye people may have collected/cultivated barley, millet and wheat. They also had domesticated cattle, sheep-goats and pigs. As in Africa, their principle domesticate at this time was cattle .

During the middle Neolithic copper was being exploited in several mountainous regions of Europe. The center for copper mining in Europe was the Carpathian mountains. Many copper objects have been found on Tripolyean sites .

Many animal and human figurines have been found on Tripolyean sites. The Tripolye rotund ceramic female figurines are analogous to the rotund female figurines found in ancient Nubia.

It appears that for over a millennium the Linear Pottery and Cris farming groups practiced agriculture in the core region of Tripolyean culture. The middle Neolithic Tripolye people on the other hand are associated with cattle herding and mining.

The Vinca Tordos culture is very interesting because of the evidence of writing found in this culture. The famous Tartaria tablets were produced by the Vinca Tordos culture. The Vinca Tordos culture is associated with western Bulgaria, southwest Romania and Yugoslavia.

The Vinca people in addition to possessing writing were also engaged in copper metallurgy. They also made clay and stone figurines and fine pottery. As among the contemporary Nubians and Tripolyeans culture the Vinca people made fine human and animal figurines .




The Manding speakers who founded Troy, may have settled areas as far as the Carpathian Valley. This is supported by the analogy between the Trojan script and the Tartarian and Tordos scripts (Hood 1968), and similar marks found at other archaeological sites in western Asia Minor, and the Fertile African Crescent (Winters 1986, Winters 1989).

The oldest Manding/Garama tablets in Europe come from Tartaria. Tartaria belongs to the Vinca culture.

There is affinity between the pottery marks of Troy and similar vessels from Vinca. Most importantly a human face that decorates a pot lid from Troy dating back to the 2nd Millennium B.C., is that of an African (Hood 1968).

King Priam of [W]ilion or Troy, which was called Wiry by the Egyptians was the uncle of Memnon . The fact that Priam and Tithonos were brothers makes it clear that the founders of Crete were from the Fertile African Crescent.

Moreover the Garamante origin of the people of Troy would explain the close relation between the Elamite and the Manding languages, since it was Memnon, who founded Susa.(see the section on West Asia) Due to the Manding origin of many of the Trojans, and some of the settlers who founded the Vinca culture we can read the most ancient Aegean inscriptions using the Manding language.

Some of the founders of Trojan civilization came from Kush in addition to the Fezzan. Ancient Kush was called Aethiopia by the Greeks. Aethiopian place names associated with the Mycenean civilization include Sima, Simos and Simon from the word simos or 'snub nosed', This term was used to refer to the snub nose of the Aethiopians. It is interesting that at Samos we find iconographic evidence of Blacks living in this area as in other parts of Mycenae and the Peloponnese in ancient times.

Tartaria is a town 70 miles south of the city of Cluj, on the Maros river near that part of Transylvania famous in classical times for gold deposits. The ancient Magyar calls Transylvania Tatarlaka. In Magyar Tatarlaka can be translated as "the seat of power knowledge". This view is supported by the Magyar legends that claim that during the golden age Tatarlaka was a fairy land, where the people, the Tuder (fairy girls and ,or elf ladies), lived an ideal life of dancing, signing and making love. This mention of females playing an important role in society places this Carpathian golden age during the epoch when the mother goddess served as the symbol of worship, and matriarchy dominated old Europe.

According to Kandra Kabos at the end of this golden age of reason the fairy girls mostly turned to stone, or stone idols. People then began to make pilgrimage to the Ko-s (idols).

The Tartaria site is a mound 250 yards long and 100 yards wide. The culture at Tartaria, and Tordos belong to the Vinca culture. The Vinca culture took its name from a site in Yugoslavia. The Vinca culture lasted 1000 years.

The signs on the Tartaria tablets have affinities to Proto-Sumerian, pre-Dynastic Egyptian , Libyco-Berber, Proto- Elamite and Trojan writing. Zanotti has suggested that the dates for the tablets may be between 3300 and 3000 B.C., or contemporary with Uruk IV, of the Jemdet Nasr period in Mesopotamia. Many signs engraved on Vinca pots are comparable to pottery marks from Asia Minor ware, especially pottery from Troy. Hood observed that:

"Many of the vases made by Vinca potters have shapes that are basically akin to Trojan ones. Pots with dark , polished surfaces, often decorated with incisions filled with a white paste, are common both in the first settlement at Troy, and in the earlier phase of the Vinca culture. Vinca ware also show affinity with later pottery at Troy".

The Tartarian tablets were found in what N. Vlassa, the archaeologist who worked on this site in 1961, called a "ritual pit" along with 26 burnt clay idols, and two Cycladic alabaster idols plus the scorched and disjointed bones of a man. He described this site as a magic-religious complex. Although, Dr. Vlassa, has suggested that this man was probably a sacrifice, our research indicates that this man was probably a priest who had died in a fire, and was buried with ritual articles he valued while alive.

The Hungarian scholar Janos Makkay has examined incised Tartarian tablets/signs from thirty-seven (37) sites spread throughout Hungary and Romania. The presence of these tablets highlight the highly developed character of the ancient African cultures in Europe.

Many scholars have attempted to decipher these tablets in the past. Jaki Gaber believed the inscriptions were written in Sumerian and discussed taxation. In another attempt at decipherment Barath, recognized that the tablets were written in Magyar, and believed that they recorded an astrological event.

Even though Barath was correct in reading the tablets in Magyar his interpretation is incorrect. In 1983, Clyde Ahmad Winters and Vamos-Toth, Bator deciphered the Tartarian tablets and discovered that it is not relating to an astrological event, it was an amulet worn by a Proto-Magyar dignitary.


Figure2: The Symbols on the Tartaria Tablet Figure 3: The Tartaria Tablet

This amulet was deciphered by giving the characters of the Tartarian tablet phonetic values consistent with the Proto-Saharan script. Winters and Vamos-Toth found that the interpretation of the Tartarian tablet in Magyar and Manding was quite similar. Reading the Tartarian inscription from left to right in Magyar we have:

Jo taj dogo ko.

"Goodness here adheres(to you from) the Deity.

Taj-a to bo.

Here the source of abundance.

To egybe .

(The Deity is) the source of Unity.

Ko ne.

The Deity (is) for me.

Mi ont ke

Which integrates (me) into one Unity (with the Deity)."

Figure 4: Breakdown of Symbols on Tartarian Tablet

This Magyar decipherment corresponds to the Manding reading of the same signs:

Yo ta togo Ko

"(Make my) Present state of Existence here the Refuge[of] God

Ne Ko

My God

fo to

(is a) pleasant Refuge

Mi nde Ge

to consume indeed Purity."

The use of the term Ko to denote God, by the Proto-Magyar in the Tartarian amulet, supports the Kushite origin of the Magyar people who made this amulet.

Table 2. The Term Ko


Language Term English


Manding Ko God, Ruler,government,rock

Dravidian Ko God,emperor, mountain

Magyar Ko Power,rock , envoy


The ancient Proto-Saharan settlers of Europe, as their ancestors in the Fertile African Crescent used the term Ko to denote a rock, stone, envoy and God. Ko, may have been a variation of the word Kos "horned ram". The ram among the dwellers of the Fertile African Crescent was the primordial symbol of the Deity who was usually called: Amma, Amon/Amun, Amen and etc. The earliest representation of this deity are found in the Sahara which predate the worship of Amon-Ra in Egypt by 1000 years. Also, an unexcavated ram headed sphinx much older than the Egyptian sphinx, believed to be a rock formation, is presently situated at Siwa, in the Eastern Desert.

Due to the fact that Ko, in the languages spoken by the Proto-Saharans meant 'stone', made it natural for this term to symbolize God, since the Deity represents both stability and power. Moreover since the Fertile African Crescent and later the Carpathian Basin were settled during a Golden Age, characterized by stability and reason, gave the term Ko a double meaning among the Proto-Saharans or ancient Kushites 1) stability and 2) power, God.

The decipherment of the Tartarian tablet by Dr. Vomas-Toth Bator and Dr. C.A. Winters is important because it offers the first written evidence that man paid homage to a Supreme Power in Europe over 5000 years ago. The Tartarian amulet is also important to world history because it is the earliest written document to appear in Europe. Moreover , the fact that Ko, may relate to powerful leaders, suggest that the Proto-Magyar people as evidenced by the excavation of other Tartarian type tablets on 37 sites , had a powerful elite that welded the prehistoric Carpathian basin villages into one of the world's early empires.




The usual method of Indo-European and Chinese invasion was two-fold. First, they settles in a country in small groups and were partly assimilated. Over a period of time their numbers increased. Once they reach a numerical majority they joined forces with other Indo-European speaking groups to militarily overthrow the original inhabitants in a specific area and take political power. Since these communities occupied by the blacks often saw themselves as residents of a city-state, they would ignore the defeat of their neighbors. This typified their second form of invasion of the countries formerly ruled by the Proto-Saharans/Kushites/Blacks.

D'iakonov on the other hand, believes that the Indo-Europeans (I-E) homeland was the Balkan-Carpathian region. He has shown that the culture terms of the I-E group indicate that they made their way across forest-steppe and deciduous forest zones to settle other parts of the world. This view is highly probable.

The view that these people were farmers seem unlikely, since the ideal farming areas in Europe were already settled by the Anu and people from the Fertile African Crescent as discussed in this unit. Instead of being farmers the I-E people were originally nomads.

The steppes could not have been the homeland of the Indo-Europeans because it was heavily occupied by the Proto-Saharan people until after 1300 B.C. In support of an early presence of Indo-European speakers on the steppes many scholars maintain that the Andronovo cultures and wheeled vehicles are markers of Indo-European "High" culture.

But this theory has been proven to be unsupportable by the archeological and linguistic data. The civilizations and economy that characterized "Old Europe" are foreign to the Indo-European culture portrayed in the Indo-Aryan literature.

Many scholars use the chariot and horsemanship as an ethnic marker for the Indo-Europeans. But it can not be proven that the horse drawn chariot was an exclusive Indo-European marker. This is further supported by the fact that the IE roots for "wheel" number four, this illustrates that this technological innovation must have come from elsewhere and was later adopted by the Proto-Indo-Europeans after there dispersal. The wheeled vehicles were used in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley before the 3rd millennium. The presence of pre-Dynasty and early Dynasty wheeled toy animals from Egypt and elsewhere supports the view that the wheel was a well-known technology to the Kushites before the expansion of the Indo-Europeans.

The horse can not be a marker for the Indo-European dispersal either. It would appear that in the steppes, the horse was not intensively used until the Iron Age. V.M. Masson believes that horse domestication and riding developed in the 1st millennium B.C., on the steppes.

The early I-E speakers were Kurgan nomadic warriors. Kurgan is a name used by archaeologist for the early Europeans.The term I-E does not refer to a racial type, because many of the ancient I-E speakers may have been black , given the fact that among the depictions of the People of the Sea on Egyptian monuments their are African people. But today the only I-E people we have are Caucasian.

Evolving in the Caucasus Mountains, the Kurgan folk were pastoralist. They herded cattle, pigs and sheep.

The Kurgans were a very destructive people. They destroyed vast regions of forest across Europe. By the Fourth millennium B.C., wide tracts of forests were gone in Europe. Upon their encounter with civilized Africoid communities, the latter were enslaved while the Kurgans adopted their culture. The Kurgan warriors used these slaves to grow grain.

The Indo-Europeans remained an insignificant group until they learned the art of metal working from the Hittites of Asia Minor. This along with natural disasters that took place around the world after 1600 B.C., helped the Kurgans to infiltrate civilized areas in the Aegean and Indus Valley.

The Kurgan people are also known as the Battle Axe/ Corded Ware Folk. By the Third millennium B.C., the Kurgan people were breeding horses and organized themselves into militarized chiefdoms. The symbol of the warrior class was the horned helmet common to the Sea Folk and later Vikings. Their common weapon was the double axe.

The Kurgan folk in small numbers slowly migrated into the centers of civilization, first in northern Mesopotamia, then India. By 3500 B.C., the Kurgans were invading the Caucasus region. Beginning in 3700 B.C., Old European settlements had walls built around them to keep out the Kurgan warriors.

These early I-E people practiced human sacrifice. At the death of a man his wife was often killed and buried with him.

The Kurgan people mixed with the indigenous Africoid people. Some of them were made slaves by the warrior elite's. If black communities were more powerful than the Kurgans, they formed an alliance between themselves and conquered weaker groups. Once the Kurgan tribe became stronger it would knock off its former ally.

By 1400 B.C., Mycenae civilization was under the control of a Kurgan ethnic group known as Achaeans. The Achaeans later founded other city-states in Greece.

Pictures of these nomadic warriors are depicted in courtyard of Medinet Habu, in Egypt. These white Japhetic Philistine folk were relocated in Palestine, where two hundred years later they destroyed Sidon and Troy. This Philistine Kurgan ethnic group is called Phrs in Egyptian documents.

Another group of Kurgan tribes took Crete. From bases in Crete, around they invaded North Africa west of Egypt. The Egyptians called these Kurgan tribesmen Rebou. This group formed the white Libyan population, which occupied much of the Delta region of Egypt, before the founding of Carthage by the Phoenicians.

After conquering the original Pelasgian, and Mycenaeans who were also from the Fertile African Crescent, the Achaeans formed the Greek states of Peloponnesus. Their major cities: the Pelasgians originally founded Mycenae and Tiryns in Argolis, and Pylos in Messenia.

Between 1400-800 B.C., the Achaeans began to take control of the Greek mainland , the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula, Crete and numerous islands in the Aegean Sea. Under Agamemnon, the Achaeans conquered the Nubian, Egyptian and Phoenician armies at Troy, the last Pelasgian stronghold in the Aegean were destroyed.

By 1300 B.C., the Dorian tribes invaded Greece and defeated the Achaeans. The Dorian conquest of Mycenae led to Crete becoming a major center of Achaean civilization. The Dorians learned the art of writing from the Phoenicians.

The period between the 12th and 8th centuries B.C. , in the Aegean is considered the Dark Ages. The only information on these periods is found in the epics written by Homer Iliad and Odyssey.

These books show that the old trade links were destroyed and the I-E people were mainly pastoralist again since the Dorian invasion all culture was destroyed. At this time the Greeks got their gods from the Egyptians, and learned agriculture from Cerops, also an Egyptian (Diop 1974; Bernal 1991).

Among the early I-E social relations were patriarchal. The hereditary warrior class controlled the best lands and large slave populations mainly made up of the native Blacks and poor Indo-Europeans. The landless people served as serfs for the ruling class made up of warriors.

A Basileus led each Indo-European ethnic group. He was military commander, judge and high priest.


Works Cited

D.W. Anthony, "The archaeology of Indo-European origins, Journal of Indo-European Studies, 19 (3) (1991), 192-222.

Tibor Barath, The Early Hungarians, Montreal, 1983.

Tibor Barath, Magyar Nepek Ostordenete, Montreal, 1974.

M.S.F. Hood, "The Tartarian tablets", Scientific America, 218 (1968), 30-37.

M.S.F. Hood, "The Tartarian tablets", Antiquity, (1967) 99-113.

Gaber Jaki, Smerok Magyar Foldon (Sumerian in Magarland), Buenos Aires, 1972.

Kabosi Kandra, Magyar Milotogia, Eger, 1897.

Robert R. Sokal, N.L. Oden and B.A. Thomson, "Origins of the Indo-Europeans: Genetic evidence", Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89 (August 1992), 7669-7673.

N. Valassa, "Chronology of the Neolithic in Transylvania in light of the Tartaria settlement stratigraphy", Dacia, 7 (1963), 1-10.

C.A. Winters, "Review on Dr. Asko Prpola's 'The coming of the Aryans'", International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 18 (2) (1989), 98-127.

C.A. Winters, "Dravidian and Magyar/Hungarian", International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 15 (2) (1986), 175-189.

D.G. Zenotti, "The position of the Tartaria tablets within the Southeast European Copper Age", American Journal of Archaeology, 87 (2) (1983), 209-213.