Much of what we call African civilization developed in
During the African Aqualithic, there was higher rainfall
Agriculture has long been practiced in
One of the most ancient sites for agricultural
Kadero is another ancient site of agriculture in
Other African grasses domesticated outside of the
Formerly it was believed that the
The Egyptian term for cultivation is 0 b j(w) #. Egyptian 0 b j(w) # corresponds to many African terms for cultivation: Galla baji 'cultivated field'
Tulu (Dravidian language) bey, benni
Nubian ba, bat 'hoe up ground'
Wolof mbey, ambey, bey
Egyptian b j(w)
Sumerian buru, bur 'to root up'
These terms for cultivate suggest that the Paleo-African term for cultivate was *be.
The Paleo-Africans used the hoe to cultivate their crops. The Egyptian terms for hoe are 0 hbs # and 0 wb #, which mean 'to open up' in Egyptian. These Egyptian terms are analogous to Black
African and Dravidian terms for hoe:
Tamil (a Dravidian language) parai
Egyptian per 'to plough'
Kannanda (a Dravidian lang.) pare
Galla buqis 'root up '
Sumerian buru 'to root up'
It would appear that contrast exist between b and (f)_______p.
This indicates that in Paleo-African that b < p. The Paleo- African term for hoe was probably *ba(r)/pa(r).
The Paleo-Africans also possessed other terms for hoe:
Malayalam (a Dravidian lang.) kuntali
Tamil kuntali 'pickaxe'
Malinke kope, daba
This evidence suggest that t > d. The phonological contrast between t =/= d, highlight the alternation patterns of many Paleo-African consonants including b =/= p, l =/= r ,and g =/= k.
The Egyptian term for grain is 0 sa #. This corresponds to many African terms for seed,grain:
Malinke se , si
Egyptian sen 'granary'
Egyptian ssr 'corn'
id. ssn 'lotus plant'
id. sm 'herb, plant'
id. isw 'weeds'
The identification of a s>0/#_________e pattern for 'seed,grain' in the above languages suggest that these groups were familiar with seeds at the time they separated into distinct Supersets. The fact that Sumerian 0 se # and Egyptian 0 sen #, and Malinke 0 se # are all separated both in time and geographical area highlight the early use of seeds * se , by Paleo-Africans.
As early as 15,000 years ago cattle were domesticated in Kenya. In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals including the pack ass, and a small screw horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia.
The zebu or humped cattle are found in many parts of Africa.The oldest faunal remains of the Bos Indicus come from Kenya, and date to the first millennium B.C.
The recent evidence that Bos Indicus , humped cattle, may have originated in East Africa suggest that this type of cattle may have first been situated in Africa, and then taken to Asia by the Proto-Saharans. This view is supported by the fact that the advent of the Bos Indicus, cattle in Egypt corresponds to the migration of the C-Group people into the Nile Valley.
The C-Group people came from the Fertile African Crescent. Augustin Holl (1989) has made it clear that pastoralism was the first form of food production developed by post Paleolithic groups in the Sahara.
In the western Saharan sites such as Erg In-Sakane region, and the Taoudenni basin of northern Mali, attest to cattle husbandry between 6000 and 5000 B.P. Cattle pastoral people began to settle Dar Tichitt and Karkarchinkat between 5000 and 3500 B.P.
There are corresponding terms for cattle in African languages:
Egyptian ng, nag
Azer na Nuer yang
Baguirmi m-ang, mang
Gourmantihe nua, nue
Gbea m-angu, mangu
Sar(a) m-ang, mang
The correspondence between African terms for cattle support the archaeological evidence for the early domestication of cattle in the Fertile African Crescent.
The oldest written evidence from Africa comes from the Egyptian language. The terms for 'cow' in Egyptian are ng and nag. In African many these languages we find either the consonant /n/ before the consonant g/k e.g., n/v________(v)g/k or a nasal consonant /n/ before the vowels -i/y and -a, e.g., n+/ a, n+/i+a= nia or n+y+a +nya.
During the Aqualithic period, due to abundant fertility in the Sahara , many people herded cattle. Nabta was located on the shoreline of a lake 11,000 years old.
A center of cattle worship was Nabta. At Nabta archaeologists have found the oldest megalithic site dating to 6000-6500 BC, which served as both a temple and calendar. This site was found by J. McKim Malville of the University of Colorado at Boulder and Fred Wendorf of Southern Methodist University.
Temple at Nabta
This sacre Proto-Saharan site at Nabta is spread over
The Nabta calendar site is
There are numerous artifacts at Nabta which suggest that this was a center of cattle worship. For example, at Nabta one of the rocks at Nabta looks like a cow. Moreover, archaeologists have excavated a total of nine cattle burials at this site.
The Paleo-Africans also domesticated sheep and goats. By 6000 B.C. goat and sheep were domesticated in Tadrart Acacus. Theophile Obenga (1988) has already used linguistic material to highlight the domestication of the goat/sheep. The Egyptian term for sheep/ram is 0 zr #, 0 sr # . In sheep we find either the consonant /s/ or /z/ before the consonant /r/ for example s>0/#_________r. This corresponds to many other African terms for sheep/goat as outlined below:
Egyptian sr, zr
Dravidian kuri, korri
Sumerian zar, sar
The linguistic data from the Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, Egyptian and the Mande Superset groups show cognition for the term for cattle/cow and sheep/goats in consonants and vowels as illustrated below:
1. Correspondence of consonants with in roots
Niger-Congo Nilotic Mande Chadic Egyptian
-g/-k g -g/-k -k -g
-s- -s- -z- s/z
-n- -n- n- m- n-
2. Correspondence of vowels within roots
Niger-Congo Nilotic Mande Chadic Egyptian
-i/y i/y i/y y
a/u a a/u a/u a
The camel may have also been domesticated by Africans. As
early as the
In ancient times the horse and ass were used to pull
chariots. But as the